The right to collective bargaining is recognized by international human rights conventions. Article 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights describes the ability to organize fundamental human rights unions.  Point 2 (a) of the International Labour Organization`s statement on fundamental principles and rights in the workplace defines “freedom of association and effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining” as an essential worker`s right.  The 1948 Convention on Freedom of Association and the Protection of the Right to Organization (C087) and several other conventions protect collective bargaining in particular by creating international labour standards that deter countries from violating workers` right to co-association and collective bargaining.  The union may negotiate with a single employer (who usually represents the shareholder of a company) or with a group of companies, depending on the country, in order to reach an industry-wide agreement. A collective agreement functions as an employment contract between an employer and one or more unions. Collective bargaining is conducted in negotiations between union representatives and employers (usually represented by management or, in some countries such as Austria, Sweden and the Netherlands, by an employers` organisation) on the conditions of employment of workers, such as wages, working time, working conditions, redress procedures and trade union rights and obligations. The parties often refer to the outcome of the collective agreement or collective agreement (AEC) negotiation. Twenty-seven states have banned union security agreements by enacting so-called “right to work” laws. In these countries, it is up to every worker in the workplace to join the union or not, while all workers are protected by the collective agreement negotiated by the union.
The parties` obligations do not end when the contract expires. They must negotiate in good faith a contract of succession or termination of the contract as long as the terms of the expired contract are maintained. In Sweden, the scope of collective agreements is very high, although there are no legal mechanisms to extend agreements to entire industrial sectors. In 2018, 83% of all private sector employees were subject to collective agreements, 100% of public sector employees and 90% in total (compared to the overall labour market).  This reflects the predominance of self-regulation (regulation by the labour market parties themselves) over state regulation in Swedish industrial relations.  If it is not possible to reach a good faith agreement, the employer can declare the impasse and then implement the last offer submitted to the union. However, the union cannot accept that a real impasse has been reached and present an unfair labour practice because of the absence of good faith bargaining. The NLRB will determine, on the basis of the history of the negotiations and the understanding of both sides, whether a real impasse has been reached. In 1931, the Supreme Court was appointed in the Texas – N.O.R. Co. Brotherhood of Railway Clerks case, upholding the prohibition of employer intervention in the selection of negotiators.
 In 1962, President Kennedy signed an executive order that gives public employee unions the right to bargain collectively with federal authorities.  Collective bargaining is a process of bargaining between employers and a group of workers that aim to regulate wages, working conditions, benefits and other aspects of workers` compensation and workers` rights. The interests of workers are generally represented by representatives of a union to which the workers belong. Collective agreements concluded in these negotiations generally define the size of wages, working time, training, health and safety, overtime, claim mechanisms and rights to participate in professional or professional affairs.  The term “collective bargaining” was first used in 1891 by Beatrice Webb, founder of the